1.  Individual and collective skills to support empowerment

The research in this theme has a dual purpose of conceptualization and operationalization. It is therefore a matter of characterizing the conditions and factors of the commitment of patients, users and persons supported and, more broadly, of their power to act in health. More specifically, it is a matter of identifying the necessary learning and the means to support it.
On the one hand, this leads to characterize the power to act in health of the persons in relation with their life environment, that is to say the motivations/capacities related to their health, their care but also their attitudes and intentions, and their strategies of adaptation, of resistance, in relation with the factors influencing their health. The mechanisms at play will be studied in several contexts in order to answer the following question: what characterizes and promotes the individual power to act of patients, accompanied persons and users, in particular in very precarious situations, but also of practicing professionals, in a posture of support for the power to act of the persons they accompany?
On the other hand, we will study the conditions and factors that facilitate the actions of health ambassadors in the Seine Saint-Denis area or those that encourage the appropriation of the contributions of user-coordinators, patient-teachers and co-researchers, and patient-partners in care organizations, for example, as well as the objectives pursued from their point of view and from the point of view of those who solicit them This research will help answer the question: what is meaningful community engagement, and what are the conditions for it?

2.  Health Promoting Environments

Health education and health-promoting environments promote the power of action of individuals and groups. In this sense, it is a matter of characterizing the action and learning mechanisms at play and understanding how education and environments (including learning organizations) can be oriented towards more partnership with people in care, more salutogenesis, organizational literacy and the agentivity of individuals and groups. This applies to places of care but also to different living conditions.
The analysis of these mechanisms calls upon the framework of analysis of meso-systemic contexts. For example, the Jean Verdier Hospital (GHU) in its health promoting hospital approach as a coherent space for health education and mediation, the creation of an enabling environment for people living with a chronic disease. Health promotion education interventions can be questioned in particular in contexts that are not very favorable, especially in emergency consultation areas, hospital discharge areas, primary care structures and in community settings, as is the case with the Académie populaire de santé de la Seine Saint-Denis. If health educations have a close relationship to configure health promoting environments, these same environments can be studied from the point of view of their design and realization from the angle of their intelligibility, their learning property and their empowering perspectives.

3.  Reorientation of health services and professional training

Supporting patients' individual and collective power to act implies developing professionals' skills in the context of interprofessional practice. This requires the transformation/evolution of the training of actors in a professionalizing perspective and the understanding of their learning experiences. It will be a question of characterizing and reporting on the pedagogical systems that contribute to greater professional expertise, articulated with professional practice and preparing for the integration of new professions in the healthcare system.
This is the case for professions that are linked to the nursing discipline, which LEPS is developing and structuring through a University and Research School project on "Nursing and Health Promotion"; this raises epistemological questions that must be resolved if the discipline is to emerge.
This is why the LEPS/Chairs will be interested in this questioning, which is particularly relevant for Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) applied to the field of health promotion.
What is the knowledge of nursing and the specificity of the role of the APN in health promotion? More specifically, the emergence of this field will be studied with regard to their sense of effectiveness, the development of their power to act/action and their perception of professional autonomy. This question also refers to initial and continuing nursing education (Aiken, 2014)4 , to its issues relating to professionalization and to the concerns it raises in the evolution of nursing studies and the transformation of the healthcare system (Rothier-Bautzer, 2012)5.
An exploration of the obstacles and levers, as well as systemic changes, related to their integration into care teams will be carried out in order to adapt the skills taught and their curriculum in light of the results produced.
The same questions concern other emerging professions, and they will be addressed in particular in the protean field of health mediation (health mediators, peer health mediators, peer navigators).